logo
 

Reviews

 

Endogenous and exogenous environmental hormone D (vitamin D) suppliers in autoimmune rheumatic diseases


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

 

  1. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Italy.
  2. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, and IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.
  3. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Italy.
  4. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Italy.
  5. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, and IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.
  6. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, and IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.
  7. Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent; Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, and Unit for Molecular Immunology and Inflammation, VIB Inflammation Research Centre, Ghent, Belgium.
  8. Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology, Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, and IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy. mcutolo@unige.it

JER1
2024 Vol.1
PI 0001, PF 0009
Reviews

Received: 25/04/2024
Accepted : 20/05/2024
In Press: 23/05/2024
Published: 23/05/2024

Abstract

In addition to its involvement in bone homeostasis, a growing number of evidence support the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D3 in modulating the immune response. In fact, the active vitamin D3 metabolite, calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) is able to modulate the innate and adaptive immune system in presence of auto-immune diseases and participate to the defence against viral and bacterial pathogens. Therefore, maintaining during the year adequate levels of vitamin D3 is crucial in preventing hypovitaminosis D, a condition associated with autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Vitamin D3 can be obtained from both endogenous sources, through skin synthesis under exposure to UV-B rays from sunlight, and exogenous sources like both diet and oral supplementation. Microbiota is also regulated by calcitriol which prevents dysbiosis and abnormal immune system activation. This review mainly aims to discuss the latest updates and clinical evidence concerning the impact of endogenous and exogenous environmental vitamin D3 sources in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

Rheumatology Article